Efficient Method for Content Reconstruction with Self-Embedding

Paweł Korus and Andrzej Dziech

IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 22, Issue 3, 2013

2013-tip-se.pdf (1 MB)



This paper presents a new model of the content reconstruction problem in self-embedding systems, based on an erasure communication channel. We explain why such a model is a good fit for this problem, and how it can be practically implemented with the use of digital fountain codes. The proposed method is based on an alternative approach to spreading the reference information over the whole image, which has recently been shown to be of critical importance in the application at hand. Our study presents a theoretical analysis of the inherent restoration trade-offs. We analytically derive formulas for the reconstruction success bounds, and validate them experimentally with Monte Carlo simulations and a reference image authentication system. We perform an exhaustive reconstruction quality assessment, where the presented reference scheme is compared to 5 state-of-the-art alternatives in a common evaluation scenario. Our study leads to important insights on how self-embedding schemes should be constructed to achieve optimal performance. The reference authentication system designed according to the presented principles allows for high-quality reconstruction, regardless of the amount of the tampered content. The average reconstruction quality, measured on 10,000 natural images is 37 dB, and is achievable even when 50% of the image area becomes tampered.


Copyright © 2012 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to use this material for any other purposes must be obtained from the IEEE by sending a request to pubs-permissions@ieee.org.

Research Reproducibility

Supplementary materials include:

  • Matlab source code,
  • quality assessment charts for 48 test images,
  • example reconstruction results for 3 selected tampering rates,
  • reconstruction results for the original and the corrected scheme based on compressive sensing.
  • a description of the corrections in the compressive sensing scheme.

The source code performs experimental validation of the presented theoreticalresults are recreates the figures from the manuscript. The provided implementation is by no means a complete digital image authentication system, and more sophisticated mechanisms might be necessary for its practical implementation in a working system.


This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modifyit under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published bythe Free Software Foundation version 3.0.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.